Monetary Theory and Fiscal Policy by ALVIN H. HANSEN


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Notice that the rate of return on fiat money is also a constant (1) in the stationary equilibrium. Identical people who face the same rate of return will choose the same consumption and money balances over time, a stationary equilibrium. Therefore, the stationary equilibrium is internally consistent. Using the information that (vt+1 ) / (vt ) = 1 and recalling that the budget line in a stationary monetary equilibrium is represented by c1 + [(vt ) / (vt+1 )] c2 = y, we determine that c1 + c2 = y.

For simplicity, assume that in each period t, individuals desire to hold real money balances equal to one-half of their endowment, so that vt mt = yt /2. a. Write down equations that represent the constraints on first- and second-period consumption for a typical individual. Combine these constraints into a lifetime budget constraint. b. Write down the condition that represents the clearing of the money market in an arbitrary period t. Use this condition to find the real rate of return of fiat money in a monetary equilibrium.

If it were possible to desire when old the good with which one is endowed, there would be J 2 = 9 possible combinations. Because those three combinations are ruled out, there are J 2 − J = 6 possible combinations. Assuming that each group is equally likely to meet any of the possible combinations at any given meeting, the probability of finding a match in which your trading partner has what you want and wants what you have is only 1/(J 2 − J ) on any given attempt. If there are many types of goods (if J is large), 1/(J 2 − J ) is a small number.

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