The incomplete currency : the future of the euro and by Marcello Minenna, Giovanna Maria Boi, Paolo Verzella

By Marcello Minenna, Giovanna Maria Boi, Paolo Verzella

"A fact-based treatise at the Eurozone difficulty, with research of attainable options the unfinished forex is the one technical -- but available -- research of the present Eurozone drawback from a world standpoint. The dialogue starts off by way of explaining how the Euro's structure, the connection among finance and the genuine economic system, and the functioning of the Eurosystem quite often are all on the root of the

"The Incomplete foreign money explains the explanations which are on the root of the present unsolved Euro area situation: The structure of the Euro, the connection among finance and the true economic system, the functioning of the Eurosystem and the way the original forex has replaced ecu international locations' economies are all subject matters analysed and illustrated in an common but rigorous means, making large use of examples, tables, and diverse colored pics. Datasets and their statistical gildings help the arguments illustrated in the course of the e-book. proof, no longer theories, subject: each assumption and assertion is justified with powerful facts and information. In a macroeconomic context the place the financial coverage is the prerogative of the ecu vital financial institution and financial coverage. Hopeless austerity works opposed to the commercial restoration of the Euro sector international locations, a good angle is tough yet important. as a result, from the views of suggestions to be had to revive the original rate of interest curve, the reader is guided via a reasoned trip that conscientiously considers the professionals and the cons of every attainable resolution and its implications"-- Read more...


A fact-based treatise at the Eurozone problem, with research of attainable ideas the unfinished forex is the single technical but available research of the present Eurozone quandary from a Read more...

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However, the professional financial operators still have the need to compare the fixed rate with the floating rate transactions, and they do so by calculating a fixed rate that is representative of the operation at a variable rate: the swap rate. Let’s try to understand this further. 4. The fair price of this bond is now 100. Now let’s try to answer this question: given a fixed coupon bond with the same number of bond coupons from Bank A (four), which fixed interest rate should I pay to have a fair price equal to 100, that is, the same as our floating-rate bond?

A further weakness of European QE is the inability to ensure that the liquidity injected will reach the real economy. The protracted crisis and the related drop in production and in the aggregate demand detonated non-performing loans (NPLs), making the disbursement of new loans difficult for banks without having to raise new capital in order to remain compliant with prudential regulations. At the same time, the predictability of the impact that QE’s purchases will have on sovereign yields and prices has encouraged banks to implement low-risk profit booking strategies through the purchase and subsequent sell-off of government bonds.

Indd 03/18/2016 Page 14 14 THE INCOMPLETE CURRENCY Italy is not an isolated case. Among the countries that have witnessed negative real interests rate can be included Japan, USA and Germany. 15 illustrate the pattern of inflation, nominal and real interest rate in the period 2000–2014 for United States, Germany and Japan. In the case of Japan, the persistence of negative real interest rates since 2013 can be explained by considering the huge monetary expansion undertaken by the Bank of Japan. In the USA the negative real interest rates for short-term bonds start from 2008 and can be explained by the synchronous contribution of an easy monetary stance (especially in 2008–2009) and the recognition of US Treasury Bills as a safe haven (2011–2012), worthy of being bought even at a zero nominal rate.

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