The Desk Encyclopedia of Microbiology by Moselio Schaechter

By Moselio Schaechter

The table Encyclopedia of Microbiology goals to supply a cheap and prepared entry to a wide number of microbiological issues inside one set of covers. this convenient desk-top reference brings jointly a very good choice of paintings through the head scientists within the box. protecting themes starting from the elemental technology of microbiology to the present "hot" issues within the box. * presents a large, simply obtainable point of view on a variety of microbiological themes * A synthesis of the broadest subject matters from the excellent and multi-volumed Encyclopedia of Microbiology, moment version * worthy source in getting ready for lectures, writing reviews, or drafting furnish purposes

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By analogy to other protein substrates exported across the bacterial envelope by dedicated transport machines, VirD2 might have a linear peptide sequence or a protein motif in its tertiary structure that marks this molecule as a substrate for the T-DNA transporter. Studies of T-DNA integrity in transformed plant cells have shown that the 5Ј end of the transferred molecule generally is intact, suffering little or no loss of nucleotides as a result of exonuclease attack during transit. By contrast, the 3Ј end of the transferred molecule typically is often extensively deleted.

1. vir gene activation Infection is initiated when bacteria sense and respond to an array of signals, including specific classes of plant phenolic compounds, monosaccharides, and an acidic pH that are present at a plant wound site (Fig. 1). Signal perception is mediated by the VirA/VirG signal transduction system together with ChvE, a periplasmic sugar-binding protein, and possibly other phenolic-binding proteins. VirA was one of the first described of what is recognized as a very large family of sensor kinases identified in bacteria and recently in eukaryotic cells.

The basic infection cycle can be described as follows (Fig. 1). Pathogenic A. tumefaciens strains carry large, ~180-kb tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids. The Ti plasmid harbors the T-DNA and virulence (vir) genes involved in T-DNA delivery to susceptible plant cells. As with many bacterial pathogens of plants and mammals, A. tumefaciens infects only at wound sites. As part of the plant wound response, various plant cell wall precursors, including defined classes of phenolic compounds and monosaccharide sugars, are released into the extracellular milieu.

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