The Concept of Representation by Hanna F. Pitkin

By Hanna F. Pitkin

Being eager about illustration, this publication is set an idea, an idea, a be aware. it truly is basically a conceptual research, now not a historic learn of how within which consultant govt has developed, nor but an empirical research of the habit of latest representatives or the expectancies citizens have approximately them. but, even if the e-book is ready a notice, it's not approximately mere phrases, now not in basic terms approximately phrases. For the social thinker, for the social scientist, phrases usually are not "mere"; they're the instruments of his alternate and an integral part of his subject material. seeing that people are usually not simply political animals but in addition language-using animals, their habit is formed through their principles. What they do and the way they do it is determined by how they see themselves and their international, and this in flip will depend on the recommendations in which they see. studying what "representation" skill and studying tips on how to signify are in detail hooked up. yet even past this, the social theorist sees the area via a community of options. Our phrases outline and delimit our global in vital methods, and this is often fairly precise of the realm of human and social issues. For a zoologist may possibly catch an extraordinary specimen and easily realize it; yet who can trap an example of illustration (or of strength, or of interest)? Such issues, too, will be saw, however the remark continuously presupposes at the very least a rudimentary notion of what illustration (or strength, or curiosity) is, what counts as illustration, the place it leaves off and a few different phenomenon starts. questions about what illustration is, or is like, should not totally separable from the query of what "representation" skill. This ebook methods the previous questions when it comes to the latter.

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An explanation for this unexpected finding can be best understood when we examine the influence of region-that is, the differences in party support between nonsouthern and southern members of the House. Mean support scores of regional party members are displayed in figure 5 (amendments) and figure 6 (final roll calls). As the data in the figures show, region remains an important cleavage in American political life. The patterns across time show that nonsouthern Democrats, on average, are more likely to support legislation of this nature than any other regional party group in the analysis.

The data are based on the Congress that voted on the 1982 extension of the Voting Rights Act. As the table reveals, on average Democrats are more likely to be elected to office as the proportion of blacks increases across congressional districts. 2) over southern Republicans in the smallest-percentage black category. In contrast, virtually all representatives were Democrats in the highest-percentage black category. When blacks make up a sizable proportion of the population in a district, they may join with moderate to liberal whites to elect more Democrats to office.

In other words, since 1960 more Republicans have voted against all of the amendments used in this analysis then decided to vote for the final bill. For example, in 1981 nearly one-quarter (23 percent) of voting House Republicans cast their votes against all of the voting rights amendments in the study then later decided to vote for the extension of the act. No Republicans voted in this manner in 1957 or 1960, and less than 5 percent did so in 1965. An interesting pattern of changing behavior from amendment to final bill is the one displayed by southern Democrats since 1965.

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