By E. G. Rochow, J. C. Bailar, H. J. Emeléus, Ronald Nyholm, E. W. Abel
Pergamon Texts in Inorganic Chemistry, quantity 14: The Chemistry of Germanium, Tin, and Lead specializes in the homes, features, alterations, and reactions of lead, germanium, and tin. The ebook specializes in germanium and compounds of Ge(I) and Ge(II). Discussions specialize in germanium(II) compounds of phosphorus and arsenic, germanium(II) imide and nitride, monohalides, analytical decision, organic job, chemical habit of germanium, and construction and business use of germanium. The textual content then elaborates on organogermanium compounds, complexes of germanium(IV), and tin. subject matters comprise nuclear magnetic resonance, chemical houses of tin steel, isotopes of tin, prevalence and distribution of tin, and fluorogermanates and chlorogermanates. The manuscript takes a glance at nuclear magnetic resonance, extraction, commercial and advertisement usage, toxicity, and chemical houses of metal lead. The e-book is an important resource of knowledge for researchers drawn to the chemistry of lead, germanium, and tin.
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Additional resources for The Chemistry of Germanium. Tin and Lead
Harris, W. H. Nebergall and Ο. H. Johnson, Inorganic Syntheses, 5 (1957) 70-74. 93 F. Rijkens, Organogermanium Compounds, p. 39, Germanium Research Committee, TNO, Utrecht (1960). 90 32 GERMANIUM: Ε. G. 3. T E T R A - A L K Y L S A N D T E T R A - A R Y L S , R i G e The tetra-alkyls of germanium are somewhat more reactive than those of silicon, but are stable substances obtainable in great variety ; hundreds of them (with similar and dissimilar 86 R groups) are listed in the 1967 compendium prepared by Weiss .
77 A. W. Laubengayer and D. S. Morton, / . Am. Chem. Soc. 54 (1932) 2303. 28 GERMANIUM: E. G. ROCHOW physical properties are listed in Table 9. Pure GeS2 dissolves in 12 Ν HCl, evolving H 2 S. When heated in air it turns brown and melts to a dark, vitreous mass, evolving S 0 2 . In water it hydrolyzes slowly, with a prominent odor of H 2 S. It is slightly soluble in liq. N H 3 , and in that medium reacts with dissolved sodium to give N a 2 S and a dispersion of elementary Ge; addition of more sodium converts the latter to sodium germanide, which reacts with NH 4 Br to produce GeH 4 .
L. Shaw, / . Chem. Soc. 1959, 705 ; J. Chatt, Ree. Chem. Prog. 21 (1960) 147. 1 05 COMPLEXES OF TRANSITION METALS 41 This method can be used to attach four metal atoms to Ge, starting with GeCLj. Other compounds are made by elimination reactions, such as HGeCl 3+ClMn(CO) 5 = Cl 3GeMn(CO) 5+HCl Another general method consists in the insertion of germanium dihalides into metal-metal bonds, giving M-Ge-M configurations : G e I 2 + C o 2 ( C O ) 8 = (CO) 4Co(GeI 2)Co(CO) 4 Lithium derivatives of organogermanium compounds can also be used to react with halogen-bearing transition metals in suitable complexes : 2(C 6H 5) 3GeLi+[(C 2H 5) 3P] 2PtCl 2 = [(C 6H 5) 3Ge] 2Pt[P(C 2H 5) 3] 2+2LiCl The structures of some transition metal-germanium compounds have been determined by X-ray crystallographic study, and these show the Ge atoms to be in distorted tetrahedral configuration, while the transition metals (here iron and manganese) show basically octa106 hedral bonding .