By Daniel Bochsler
The ebook extends study at the territorial constitution of celebration platforms (party nationalization) to twenty post-communist democracies. It explains celebration nationalisation because of ethnically orientated politics, and exhibits how celebration nationalisation can bring up our realizing of electoral platforms.
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Additional info for Territory and Electoral Rules in Post-Communist Democracies
Indeed, often differences between one-seat parties and independent candidates with informally organised supporters are only of a formal nature. Specifically, in some countries, there are one- or two-seat micro-parties, along with non-partisan candidates (for Ukraine: Birch and Wilson, 1999, p. 281; for Lithuania: Clark, 1994, p. 18 However, it is worth noting that the common index that is used to measure the fractionalisation of party system, the effective number of parties (Laakso and Taagepera, 1979), is made on purpose not to overweight the relevance of small parties or of independent candidates.
No matter how large the electoral district is, always at least one party wins seats. Neither of these two is a common case, however; rather, in larger multi-member districts, some parties might win several mandates. Accordingly, the function must fit into the space of the possible solutions, limited by the condition 1 р N2 р m. The larger the district, the better the chances of smaller parties to win mandates, so that the number of parties should increase monotonically with district magnitude. And, last, as discussed before, the marginal impact of an increase in district magnitude will decrease with larger districts.
The impact of electoral systems on the number of parties has direct implications for the chances to form new political parties (cf. Hug, 2001; Sikk, 2006), and salient political importance in countries with ethnic minority groups that demand the possibility of being represented by their own parties. There, the electoral system is decisive for the possibility of minority groups forming their own political parties and succeeding with them in parliamentary elections. There are different ways of measuring the number of political parties.