By Gian Andrea Pini
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Additional resources for Tectonosomes and Olistostromes in the Argille Scagliose of the Northern Apennines, Italy (GSA Special Paper 335)
Block stacking is typically at a low angle, from 10° to 20°, with respect to the mesoscale thrust plane, and has the same vergence. In this prevailing case, the block stacking may be interpreted as diffuse simple-shear deformation, geometrically and kinetically similar to P shears (Skempton, 1966; Morgenstern and Tchalenko, 1967; Tchalenko, 1968, 1970). Further localized tectonic thickening of the system of matrix and blocks produced the stacking of matrix, in the same way that P foliation results in thickening in fault rocks (Cowan and Brandon, 1994).
A. Pini Figure 25. Sketches of the observed and interpreted relationships between mesoscopic deformations and macroscopic structures in LC1 tectonosomes (A) and between mesoscopic deformations in unit LC2 (B). The different lithotype associations of the parent lithostratigraphic units force the contrasting, different scale of the interpretation in A and B. The calcareous turbidites of the LC1 tectonosomes are markers proportionate enough to reconstruct outcrop- to map-scale structures. A and B are from the outcrop shown in Figures 7, 8A, and 9.
Some sandstone-siltstone blocks are the relicts of rootless, noncylindrical folds, with marked thickening of the hinge (Figs. 27G and 29B) and curved axial planes. Folding occurred by the plastic accommodation of the sandstones and siltstones, and is associated with discontinuous, curving, and anastomosing veins filled by the darkest and finest siltstone. These veins preferably develop in the hinge zone, either parallel or at various angles with respect to the sedimentary lamination. All the calcite-filled veins cut across the fold hinges.