By G. Marone, H. Renz
The newest advances at molecular and biochemical degrees Superantigens represent a becoming relations of bacterial and viral proteins that proportion the means of inducing titanic activation of the immune method. This quantity includes contributions from leaders within the box of classical T mobile superantigens and sheds gentle on correct B cellphone superantigens on the molecular and biochemical degrees. additionally, articles during this booklet care for the rising, fascinating hazard that immunoglobulin superantigens can turn on fundamental effector cells of allergic problems either in vitro and in vivo, therefore appearing as superallergens. a close account is usually given of the biochemical, immunological and medical features of numerous endogenous, viral and bacterial superallergens, that are most likely appropriate in a number of human ailments. this can be the 1st quantity to place jointly simple and medical facets of the classical T mobile superantigens, B mobile superantigens and superallergens. it's going to for that reason be essential analyzing to easy and medical immunologists, microbiologists, virologists and experts in allergic and immune issues.
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Extra info for Superantigens and Superallergens (Chemical Immunology)
Arcus V: OB-fold domains: a snapshot of the evolution of sequence, structure and function. Curr Opin Struct Biol 2002;12:794–801. Jardetzky TS, Brown JH, Gorga JC, Stern LJ, Urban RG, Chi YI, Stauffacher C, Strominger JL, Wiley DC: Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen. Nature 1994;368:711–718. Kim J, Urban RG, Strominger JL, Wiley DC: Toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 complexed with a class II major histocompatibility molecule HLA-DR1.
The emetic action of SEs has been studied rather extensively by Sugiyama and Hayama Thomas/Chou/Dauwalder/Lina 32  in the rhesus monkey by testing its emetic responsiveness following destruction of specific neural structures and/or visceral deafferentation. Animals subjected to vagotomy plus abdominal sympathectomy did not vomit even after being administered lethal doses of SEB. Neither vagotomy nor sympathectomy alone were sufficient to block the vomiting reflex, but vagotomy provided increased tolerance to SE.
A current working hypothesis is that the human immune system is constantly being challenged by these powerful toxins. Despite the shared characteristic of facilitating TCR and MHC II ligation, SEs and TSST-1 display a remarkable degree of variation in structure and function. The effect of SE variability on the host as well as its advantages for the bacteria remains an open question. References 1 2 3 4 5 Minor ET, Marth EH: Some historical aspects of staphylococcal infections, intoxications, and classification; in Minor ET, Marth EH (eds): Staphylococci and Their Significance in Foods.