Studies in West Frisian Grammar: Selected Papers by Germen by Germen J. de Haan; Jarich Koekstra, Willem Visser, and Goffe

By Germen J. de Haan; Jarich Koekstra, Willem Visser, and Goffe Jensma (editors)

During this quantity, Germen de Haan supplies a multi-faceted view of the syntax, sociolinguistics, and phonology of West-Frisian. the writer discusses unique facets of the syntax of verbs in Frisian: finiteness and Verb moment, embedded root phenomena, the verbal advanced, verbal complementation, and complementizer contract. simply because Frisian has minority language prestige and is of curiosity to sociolinguists, the writer experiences the linguistic alterations in Frisian below the effect of the dominant Dutch language and, extra in general, displays on tips on how to take care of contact-induced switch in grammar. eventually, in 3 phonological articles, the writer discusses nasalization in Frisian, the putatively symmetrical vowel stock of Frisian, and the adaptation among schwa + sonorant consonants and syllabic sonorant consonants.

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Munske (1973) defends the term 'Old Frisian' by calling upon the archaic vocabulary of the manuscripts. : 41) expresses the opinion, as already noted above, that the designation 'Old Frisian' is 'not altogether inappropriate' after all. Arhammar (1990: 13) emphasizes that compared to contemporary languages such as Middle Low German and Middle Dutch, Old Frisian is conservative in its resis-· tance to franconian influence, justifying the terminological distinction. He refers, in general terms, to some textual examples of Old Prisian included in his paper, but he presents no specific evidence.

Large -·scale surveys as conducted for West Frisian are not available for the other Frisian varieties. Information that is made public does not make one optimistic fix their future. Arhammar (1971, 1975a) discusses the demographic and geographic spread of the language varieties on the island of Fohr, and also the language use by the younger generation. A discussion of the general situation of North Frisian language can be found in Arhammar (l975b). It appears that with the exception of the island of Fohr the shift of the younger generation towards Low or High German has now been completed almost everywhere.

Ga-skehan); Ofr. slit 'to hit' (Os. slahan); Ofr. tia 'to set forth' (Os. tiohan); Ofr. dwa (<*do:an). Again Old Frisian seems to represent a later stage with respect to contracted verbs. Against the background of Jespersen's cycle of negation (cf. Jespersen (1917) ), a potentially interesting syntactic criterion for periodization is negation. According to Jespersen's cycle, the development of sentential negation in natural languages begins with a stage in which negation is expressed by a single negative element, let us say negr As a consequence of phonological reduction of this element (signalled by cliticization), the linguistic system requires the addition of an 43 44 Studies in West Frisian Grammar extra negative element neg2 to negr In this second stage, two ways of expressing negation cooccur: single negation by neg1, and double negation by negr ..

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