Science in Seconds 200 Key Concepts Explained in an Instant by Hazel Muir

By Hazel Muir

Easy and available, Science in Seconds is a finished, pleasing creation to 2 hundred key clinical principles. each one inspiration is obviously learned with a invaluable visible and a concise clarification. The techniques integrated span all the key medical disciplines, together with Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Ecology, Biotechnology, Anatomy and body structure, drugs, Earth technology, strength iteration, Astronomy, Spaceflight and knowledge know-how. using brilliant, academic illustrations--inspired by means of medical examine suggesting that the mind most sensible absorbs info visually--these compact and transportable reference courses are excellent research neighbors or vacation presents, and enlightening interpreting for all.

Hazel Muir studied astrophysics at Edinburgh collage earlier than turning into a employees editor and author at New Scientist. at the moment a contract author, she nonetheless frequently contributes to BBC Sky At Night journal, and has additionally written for Wired UK. She has received foreign awards for her articles from the yankee Institute of Physics and the Acoustical Society of the USA.

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The energies of individual water molecules in a boiling kettle are not identical but follow a bell curve, which means that liquid and gas phases can coexist. At the so-called triple point of a substance, all three phases can coexist. 01°C) at very low pressures. Plasma, a searingly hot ionized (electrically charged) gas, is often called a fourth state of matter. It streams out from stars like the Sun into interstellar space. 1 31 32 Surface tension Surface tension results from the inward pull of molecules on the surface of a liquid, making them adopt the smallest surface area possible.

In fluid dynamics, the “Reynolds number” expresses the relative importance of these factors in flows across a surface, such as a ship’s hull or a pipeline. A low Reynolds number gives smooth fluid motion, while turbulent flow with chaotic eddies and vortices occurs at high Reynolds numbers. One key concept in fluid dynamics is the Bernoulli effect: the faster a fluid flows, the lower its pressure. The curved upper surfaces of aircraft wings are shaped to force air to follow a longer path over the top of the wing, speeding it up.

Lasers have a host of everyday applications, such as reading information in DVD players and barcode scanners and as a tool for hospital surgery. Future gamma-ray lasers could focus a million times more energy than the current generation. 56 57 Reflection and refraction In many situations, light can be thought of simply as a transverse wave (see page 38) that travels in a straight line until it encounters an obstacle. Light reflects in a simple way off smooth surfaces like mirrors, obeying a law that the angle of reflection (measured from the normal, a line perpendicular to the mirror) equals the angle of incidence or approach.

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