Proto-Wintun by Alice Shepherd

By Alice Shepherd

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Compare regularly fronted PR t’etaho, to split open a fish, < PW *t’e…a, slice 14 Phonology *…h Not fronted: *…h iq…h iq- ? *…h il…h i»- ? chipmunk: PCC, K and T show …h ik…h i·ki, chipmunk *…h ur, twins: PCC has regular th udum, twins, while PK has …h uru·…h uru, twins Other irregularities affecting *… and *…h *…ala, good: PR has irregular t’ala sem, right hand, as well as regular talo·ma, to measure, straighten something out, and talo·, straight *…uka, approach: PCC and PR have regular -tuka, as well as irregular -t’uka, toward *…h a·hay, gray hair: PK has regular tha·say, gray hair, as well as t’a·say, gray (hair or whiskers) …’ Not fronted: *…’aro·q(i), grass, green: SP-V has tcalo’k·c, yellow, and SP-M has chul-lo’-ke, challo’-ke, white *…’ayi(·)k, scrub jay: PCC …’ayi·t, scrub jay, any bluejay, jaybird; K …’ayi·t, scrub jay, T …’ayi(·)t, scrub jay; PR …’ay…’ayt, …’ayit, scrub jay.

Since they are not reconstructible following a or o, they may also have arisen as harmonic variants of *-a/*-a·. No semantic difference is discernable between *-a/-*a· and *-e/ *-e·. 31 *-h and *-s derive verbal stems, most likely with intensive meaning. , to be like,” and -s, intensive verb-derivational suffix, which follow the nominal or neutral mode suffix. For P, Whistler has identified verbalizers -ho and -so, as well as -ho, -to, -ko, plurality and temporality distributive. He also identifies -ho as a “theme-derivational suffix” (1981:88).

253. Loss of r, w, y Nomlaki loses *r, with or without replacement, as follows: Intervocalic *r is dropped and the vowels contracted into a long vowel or a diphthong: *…hiri·k-, fear, *…hiri·kuma, to scare someone > N-BW …Iktu-, fear, be scared by (via *…hirik-tu) *kh erek, spider > N-M k~k, spider (presumably representing [ke·k]) *koro, net > N-B kÇma, dipnet (presumably representing [ko·ma] via *koroma) *k’urey, young boy > N-C nt=kui, my nephew *moroq, move > N-B pÇmÇkÇ, earthquake (representing [po·m mo·qo] via *po·m moroqo) *nur, salmon > N-B nãt, salmon, but N-J nu rut, salmon *puri, dark > N-G pu:itber, third-quarter moon, moon won’t be up until late (but note the final -r) *qh or, growl > N-BW q’Ota’-, q’ota-, snore (via *qh orota) *sir-i, copulate > N-G si·pa, vulgar word for sexual intercourse (via *siripa, with benefactive) *surut, strap, tumpline > NT-M soot’, carrying band for head (representing [su·t] < *surut) An exception is *…’aro·q(i), grass, green > NG-M chi’-yok’, grass (any), C cha-yó-ka, green, most likely because ao does not make an acceptable diphthong.

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