Principles of Catalyst Development by James T. Richardson

By James T. Richardson

Successful commercial heterogeneous catalysts satisfy a number of key require­ ments: as well as excessive catalytic job for the specified response, with excessive selectivity the place acceptable, in addition they have an appropriate advertisement existence and are rugged sufficient for transportation and charging into plant reactors. extra specifications contain the necessity to come on-line easily very quickly and reproducible production techniques that contain handy tactics at applicable expense. the improvement of heterogeneous catalysts that meet those (often together specific) calls for is way from elementary, and likewise a lot of the particular production tech­ nology is stored mystery for advertisement reasons-thus there's no glossy textual content that bargains with the entire of this significant topic. ideas of Catalyst improvement, which offers comprehensively with the layout, improvement, and manufacture of sensible heterogeneous catalysts, is as a result specially important in assembly the long-standing wishes of either industrialists and lecturers. As one that has labored commonly on numerous catalyst improvement difficulties in either and academia, James T. Richardson is easily put to write down an authoritative ebook protecting either the speculation and the perform of catalyst improvement. a lot of the cloth contained during this ebook had its beginning in a sequence of extensively acclaimed lectures, attended quite often by way of business researchers, given over decades within the usa and Europe. All these in who paintings with catalysts, either rookies and people of substantial event, may still locate this quantity an important guide.

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In the case of high loading, the term "support" is still used, although, from the representation shown in Fig. 7, spacer might be more appropriate. 3. High Area Supports Commonly Used y-Al z0 3 SiOz C (activated) Diatomaceous clays SiO r AI 2 0 J 32 CHAPTER 2 ,- -'" 50 >- 0 ou 40 01 N E .

4) n-C;; - H' AI 2 0 i-C;; J Neither Pt or Al 2 0 3 promotes paraffin isomerization, but AI20)· acid sites isomerize normal olefins. In a three step sequence, n-C 6 is dehydrogenated by Pt to n-C;;, which migrates to the AI 2 0) and isomerizes to i-C;, then hydrogenated by the Pt to i-Co. Platinum and AI 2 0) must be in intimate contact and the AI 2 0) have sufficient acidity. Chlorine is added during activation to generate the needed acidity. (56) Dual functionality is indeed an elegant demonstration of catalyst design.

For example, activity, selectivity, and deactivation problems may exist because of either chemical or diffusional factors. Which is it? The answer determines the route of future development. If chemical properties are to be adjusted, then modification of surface composition is necessary. On the other hand, correction for 44 CHAPTER 3 diffusional resistance requires changes in pore structure and particle formulation. The methods for diffusional diagnosis given in Chapter 1 should be used here, even if only limited data on comparable processes are available.

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