Physics of the human body by Julian V. Noble

By Julian V. Noble

Within the materialistic view we regard residing organisms as greatly complicated collections of subject, in a position to powering definite chemical reactions with loose energy4 from exterior assets. those reactions comprise synthesizing the structural components of the organism itself, in addition to producing new self sustaining organisms of a similar trend, i.e., replica. Self-replication is the major contrast among dwelling organisms and inanimate matter.
Our psychological version of a dwelling organism is hence one of those computer. during this experience, residing organisms are the main advanced machines we all know of, and consequently in lots of methods now not specifically amenable to the equipment of physics.

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The quantity U depends, by assumption, only on the present state of the system and not on the history of how the system got into that state. In that case, dU must be, in the mathematical sense, an exact differential. To understand what this means, consider the work done by sliding a heavy block up an inclined plane. There is a force acting downhill (gravity) as well as friction. Obviously the work done traversing the wiggly path up the hill is greater than that along the straight path, since friction always acts opposite to the direction of motion.

Here we have used Stokes’s law, combined with Newton’s second law and the formula for the volume of a sphere. M. Purcell, “Life at Low Reynolds Number”, American J. Physics 45 (1977) 3-11. Physics of the Human Body Chapter 4: Fluid mechanics and living organisms → ∇⋅v = 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂ vz + vϕ + rv  = 0 r ∂ϕ r ∂r  r ∂z in cylindrical coordinates provides some extra information. First of all, the rotational symmetry of the pipe guarantees there is no ϕ dependence. Next, the flow is steady, hence the z-component → of v cannot vary along the pipe.

If the fluid is in a gravitational field of µ p, RT → local acceleration g , → → ∆F = ρ∆V g . On the other hand, consider a pressure gradient in—say—the x-direction, as shown to the right. 3 J oK−1 gm−mol−1 is the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, and µ the grammolecular mass. 3 m ≈ 34 ft . mass (where ρ is the mass density). If a fluid is flowing with a velocity vx in the x-direction (say), then in time dt we expect dN = n vx dt dy dz particles to be transported across an imaginary surface of area dA = dy dz .

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