By Usman Khan
Participation past the poll field is a welcome boost to the literature on democracy and the position of civil society. It demonstrates that new mechanisms being brought in Western Europe can and do supply the capability to seriously advance the democratic technique.
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1987) “Decentralisation in western European cities”, Local Government Policy Making, 14, 2, pp. 13–18. Norton, A. (1991) “Western European local government in comparative perspective”, in Batley, R. and Stoker, G. (eds) Local Government in Europe: Trends and Developments. London: Macmillan. O’Connor, J. (1973) The Fiscal Crisis of the State. New York: St Martin’s Press. Osborne, D. and Gaebler, T. (1992) Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Holistic: the way in which decisions are made encourages people to think in terms of some notion of the common good or general interest. • Particularistic: the way in which decisions are made in the area concerned encourages people to think in terms of particular or self-interest. 1 illustrates the model. The cells in the matrix are not put forward as totally mutually distinct and self-contained. It is accepted there can be some overlap between the different cells. For example, a user board which was set up to cover a particular school would be defined as collective but particularist, in that it treated parents collectively but was concerned only with the parents of children in the one particular school, with the consequence that parents would only be expected to think in terms of what was best for the children in their particular school, rather than considering the interests of all children within the locality.
Habermas, J. (1990) Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. Habermas, J. (1991) Communication and the Evolution of Society. Cambridge: Polity Press. Habermas, J. (1995) Justification and Application. Cambridge: Polity Press. Habermas, J. (1996) Between Facts and Norms. Cambridge: Polity Press. Hirschman, A. (1970) Exit, Voice and Loyalty. Cambridge MA: Harvard Universtiy Press. Ingram, D. (1995) Reason, History and Politics. New York: SUNY. Laclau, E. and Mouffe, C.