Paleoindian Archaeology: A Hemispheric Perspective by Juliet E. Morrow, Cristóbal Gnecco

By Juliet E. Morrow, Cristóbal Gnecco

Since the 1997 record of investigations into the Monte Verde website in Chile, there was a surge of curiosity in early habitation websites and a polarization of opinion concerning the antiquity of people within the Americas. whereas Clovis continues to be the earliest undisputed cultural advanced within the New global and one of many quickest and so much winning diasporas in human background, many students argue that this tradition didn't input an empty panorama. This quantity samples websites from Alaska to the southern cone of South the USA to supply a greater realizing of the techniques through which the early cost of the Americas happened on the finish of the past due Wisconsonian Ice Age.
            With wide geographical and topical breadth, Paleoindian Archaeology presents theoretical views on early migrations, interpretations of unmarried websites, and comparative reviews of fabric tradition. incorporated are a synthesis on radiocarbon courting, a critique of Paleoindian reports, a reconstruction of the Clovis drought in keeping with geomorphological and paleo-environmental info, numerous web site particular reviews (one at the simply identified Clovis burial within the New World), discussions on fluted issues from South the United States, and 3 reports evaluating North and South American proof (grassland diversifications, stone applied sciences, and Paleoindian artifacts). 

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A well-known shape is that of the so-called Fishtail, or Fell’s Cave projectile point, initially found by Junius Bird in the Palli Aike region, in Chile. Fishtail points have since been recorded at several sites in Patagonia, including Piedra Museo and Cueva del Medio, and at localities around 38 degrees south latitude in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile (Flegenheimer 1986; Nuñez et al. 1994; Martínez 2001). These points also exhibit wide variation in form, raw material, and size. They have usually been compared to Clovis, but important differences in their morphology (Politis 1991) and reduction sequences (Nami 1996b, 1997) suggest separate origins.

Until recently, Blackwater Draw was the only site with clear stratigraphic superposition of Clovis and Folsom components. However, preliminary reports indicate a Clovis-to-Folsom sequence at the Gault site in Texas (Collins 2002). In southernmost Patagonia, Junius Bird excavated from 1934 to 1936 at Palli Aike Cave and Fell’s Cave. He discovered fluted Fishtail stemmed points in close association with bones of horse, giant sloth, and guanaco (Bird 1938a). Bird guessed that the earliest material might be about 5,400 years old.

Roosevelt’s argument—that Fell I–type points in Central America are not 14C-dated as pre-Holocene—may be technically correct for the moment, but it is logically untenable and will surely be undermined as more dates are obtained (for example, recently reported bracketing dates of circa 9,000–11,500 BP from the lowest stratum with Fishtail points at Cueva de los Vampiros in Panama [Pearson 2002]). The Clovis lithic industry, with its end scrapers, gravers, and other artifacts, is ultimately derived from the Eurasian Upper Paleolithic.

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