Niagara: A History of the Falls by Pierre Berton

By Pierre Berton

Packed with heroes and villains, eccentrics and daredevils, scientists, and gear agents, Niagara has a modern resonance: how a good ordinary ask yourself created either the commercial heartland of southern Ontario and the worst pollutants at the continent.

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Image of the PBMF Aperture is then focused on the sample by L3 in a manner analogous to that utilized on SHRIMP-type instruments (Kohler illumination, Ireland 1995). 5kV, and focused through the immersion lens into the transfer optics of the instruments. The transfer optics comprise three electrostatic lenses, used to control the maximum field of view for secondary ion collection from the sample, and the effective magnification for direct ion imaging. The transfer optics focus the secondary ions on the entrance slit of the mass spectrometer.

7Li, δ11B: Stable isotope ratio analysis of traceelement analytes The primary challenge of δ7Li and δ11B determinations in silicate melt inclusions is that one is working with trace element levels of the Li and B analytes (routinely less than 100 ppm, and often less 38 SIMS IN THE DETERMINATION OF LIGHT STABLE ISOTOPES IN SILICATE MELT INCLUSIONS 106 than 10 ppm). A key requirement, therefore, is to maintain high enough signals on the analyte masses to achieve sufficient precision. Most published δ11B determinations by SIMS have utilized the general approach published by Chaussidon et al.

5 kV. The sample was pre-sputtered for 5 min with a 15 µm2 raster applied, producing a shallow 25 µm2 pit. Analyses were then performed with the primary beam focused to a 12 µm diameter spot centered within this pre-sputtered area. The field aperture size was adjusted to restrict collection of secondary ions to an area of 15–20 µm2, just slightly larger than this spot diameter. Secondary ions were extracted into the mass spectrometer through a nominal potential of 10 kV. 33Da (background, 1s), 10B+ (6s), 11B+ (4s) and 30Si+ (2s).

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