New Developments in Viral Vaccine Technologies by R. Ulrich, G.P. Lomonossoff, D.H. Krüger

By R. Ulrich, G.P. Lomonossoff, D.H. Krüger

Precise subject factor: Intervirology 2002, Vol. forty five, No. 4-6 the advance of potent antiviral vaccines calls for an interdisciplinary collaboration among physicians, epidemiologists, researchers in simple virology and immunology, and specialists in vaccine improvement. to satisfy this desire, the 3rd overseas Workshop on ‘Virus-Like debris as Vaccines’ was once held in Berlin in September 2001, from which many of the shows integrated during this distinct factor arose. The papers summarize present wisdom in regards to the molecular biology, pathogenicity, epidemiology and immunology of hepatitis B virus, human immunodeficiency virus, human papilloma virus and hantavirus infections. A comparative assessment of alternative vaccine ways to strive against those viruses is vital. as a result, numerous options for vaccine improvement according to reside attenuated, recombinant and inactivated viruses, virus-like debris, recombinant proteins, man made peptides and bare DNA are mentioned intimately. moreover, the exploitation of virus-like debris for the new release of vaccines opposed to different infectious illnesses is taken into account. Scientists and scholars within the fields of virology, immunology, vaccinology and AIDS examine in addition to representatives of pharmaceutical businesses will significantly enjoy the updated findings awarded during this e-book.

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Genomes carrying such CID variants possess some replication advantages in comparison to wild-type HBV genomes, but they are dependent on complementa- 223 Fig. 2. Location of the vaccine escape mutations in the major hydrophilic domain (aa positions 99–169) of the HBs protein, serotype adw2, genotype A (PIR accession: SAVLVD) [185]. Two antigenic loops of the a determinant are depicted by boxes. Another tight loop is formed by cysteines 121 and 124. Five antigenic regions are shown in accordance with a previous report [116].

In countries with mass vaccination programmes, for example Taiwan [113], a substantial in- 224 Intervirology 2002;45:218–232 crease in HBs escape variants of up to 28% has been documented, concurrent with a 10-fold decrease in the HBs carrier rate in children [114]. Generally, escape mutations were found mainly in the aa 139–147 loop, or HBs4 region of the a determinant, predominantly at position 145 (G145R) [115]. A summary of mutations found in vaccinees is presented in figure 2. For more detailed information, the reader is referred to several recent reviews on this topic [32, 50, 116–120].

33 Guidotti LG, Chisari FV: Noncytolytic control of viral infections by the innate and adaptive immune response. Annu Rev Immunol 2001; 19:65–91. 34 Guidotti LG, Ishikawa T, Hobbs MV, Matzke B, Schreiber R, Chisari FV: Intracellular inactivation of the hepatitis B virus by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Immunity 1996;4:25–36. 35 Guidotti LG, Chisari FV: To kill or to cure: Options in host defense against viral infection. Curr Opin Immunol 1996;8:478–483. 36 Guidotti LG, Rochford R, Chung J, Shapiro M, Purcell R, Chisari FV: Viral clearance without destruction of infected cells during acute HBV infection.

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