Networking Wireless Sensors by Bhaskar Krishnamachari

By Bhaskar Krishnamachari

Instant sensor networks promise an unparalleled fine-grained interface among the digital and actual worlds. they're the most swiftly constructing new info applied sciences, with functions in a variety of fields. This ebook is inspired by means of the pressing have to offer a finished and arranged survey of the sphere. excellent for researchers and architects trying to create new algorithms and protocols, and engineers enforcing built-in options, it additionally includes many routines and will be utilized by graduate scholars taking classes in networks.

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4. To determine the quality of coverage. If node locations are known, the network can keep track of the extent of spatial coverage provided by active sensors at any time. 5. To achieve load balancing in topology control mechanisms. If nodes are densely deployed, geographic information of nodes can be used to selectively shut down some percentage of nodes in each geographic area to conserve energy, and rotate these over time to achieve load balancing. 31 32 Localization 6. To form clusters. Location information can be used to define a partition of the network into separate clusters for hierarchical routing and collaborative processing.

2 Unique network localization There is a strong connection between the problem of unique network localization and a mathematical subject known as rigidity theory [46]. Definition 3 Consider a sensor network with n nodes (m reference nodes and n − m unknown nodes) located in the 2D plane, with edges between neighboring nodes. Information is available about the exact location coordinates of the reference nodes, and the exact Euclidean distance between all neighboring nodes. This network is said to be uniquely localizable if there exists only one possible assignment of x y coordinates to all unknown nodes that is consistent with all the available information about distances and positions.

Note that there can be several maximal breach paths with the same distance. Given a deployment, the above algorithm can be used to determine the maximal breach distance, which is a worst-case coverage metric. Such an algorithm can be used to evaluate different possible deployments to determine which one provides the best coverage. Note that it is desirable to keep the maximal breach distance as small as possible. Similar to the maximal breach path, there are other possible coverage metrics that try to capture the notion of target observability over a traversal of the field, such as the exposure metric [137] and the lowest probability of detection metric [30].

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