By David B Hollander
Roman financial background has tended to target the examine of Roman coinage yet different resources on a regular basis functioned as, or instead of, cash. This publication locations coinage in its broader financial context through additionally studying the position of bullion, monetary tools, and commodities similar to grain and wine in making funds, facilitating trade, measuring price and storing wealth. using such resources lowered the call for for coinage in a few sectors of the financial system and is a vital consider settling on the effect of the big elevate within the coin offer over the last century of the Republic. funds call for concept means that elevated coin construction ended in additional monetization, no longer in line with capita fiscal development.
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18: Tu agris, tu aediÀciis, tu argento . . ornatus et copiosus sis, et dubites de possessione detrahere, adquirere ad Àdem? ’ 32 Parker (1992) no. 44. 33 Cic. Flac. 6. 34 Plin. 51: Equidem miror populum Romanum victis gentibus in tributo semper argentum imperasse, non aurum, sicut Carthagini cum Hannibale victae octingenta milia, XVI pondo annua in quinquaginta annos, nihil auri. nec potest videri paenuria mundi id evenisse. 35 Polyb. 8: ƦɝƵƺƴƣƮ Ʀɖ ƄȜƵƺƭưɚ ǰƲƥƶƲɛưƶ vɘ ƸƧɛƲưƮưƳ ŝƄƵƵƫƬư˃ ƱƣƲƣƸƲʦvƣ vɖƮ ƵɕƭƣƮƵƣ ƈȸƤưƻƬɔ ƦƫƣƬɝƴƫƣ Ƶˎŧ ƴƵƲƣƵƩƥˎŧ Ƶˎŧ ȀƮ Ƶʧ ‘ƈƭƭɕƦƫ, ǰƮƵɚ ƵƲɛƵưƶ vɗƲưƶƳ FInancial instruments 37 Coupled with the relative lack of production of gold coins, these passages indicate that the Roman state did not have a strong demand for gold bullion.
55 Such a conversion would also have been necessary for Atticus to use Cicero’s cistophori to satisfy his debtors who were, presumably, Roman. Two passages indicate that permutatio meant more than just the transfer/exchange of money. 24, Cicero states that Terentia has sent him HS 10,000. In this passage permutare seems to be used interchangeably with mittere to mean sending money without there necessarily being an exchange of currency. Indeed, as both Cicero and his wife were probably in Italy at the time of the transaction, it seems unlikely that any currency exchange would have been necessary.
90: Lex enim generi tui et decerni et te accipere vetabat nisi decreto triumpho. 11: Cetera expedientibus quae ad bellum opus erant consulibus, aurum vicensimarium, quod in sanctiore ad ultimos casus servabatur, promi placuit. Prompta ad quattuor milia pondo auri. 14 Plin. 55–56. 15 Cic. Clu. 179–181: Cum esset in aedibus armarium, in quo sciret esse nummorum aliquantum et auri . . pecunia ablata. 16 Cic. Pis. 90: vocabula tantum pecuniarum et genera mutabas. 3 Bullion as a Measure of Value Gold and silver bullion probably functioned as measures of value only in a few limited circumstances.