By F. Ferrara, E. Herron, M. Nishikawa
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Additional resources for Mixed Electoral Systems: Contamination and Its Consequences
Building on existing scholarship, we noted that one feature of mixed systems—the allocation of seats by more than one formula in the election for a legislative body—is a necessary condition for rules to qualify as mixed. Mixed electoral systems, however, vary on a number of important dimensions, such as geographic application of the two formulae, number of ballots, provisions allowing dual candidacy, 32 / mixed electoral systems proportion of seats allocated through a given formula, and presence of seat or vote linkages.
It is likely that the Green Party’s poor SMD performance would have been attenuated by the acquisition of additional PR seats in a compensatory system. While the allocation disparities in Ukraine are relatively small, larger gaps can occur in noncompensatory mixed systems. Disproportionality is magnified in systems where most of the legislative seats are allocated through SMD. Given that the use of multiple allocation formulae is our guiding principle in the classification of mixed electoral systems, what countries are part of the universe of mixed systems?
Most mixed systems do not exemplify the extremes, however. 15 The linkage among tiers is the fifth feature that differs among countries with multiple formulae. This mechanism is often considered to be the most important form of variation in mixed systems (Ferrara and Herron 2005; Moser 2001; Nishikawa and Herron 2004). In fact, it is the basis of Shugart and Wattenberg’s (2001a) distinction between “mixed-member proportional” (MMP) and “mixed-member majoritarian” (MMM) systems. In MMP systems, the proportional ballot is used to compensate parties for poor performance in the nominal ballot.