By Peter Lloyd-Sherlock
This booklet examines the hyperlinks among health and improvement, drawing on examples from low, center and high-income nations. It examines getting older in a couple of very diversified improvement contexts--in Argentina, Brazil, China, Ghana, Japan, Mexico, Thailand, Ukraine, united kingdom and united states. It highlights the complexity of relationships among improvement and how later existence is skilled, identifies key priorities for policy-makers, and maps out an pressing study schedule.
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Additional resources for Living Longer: Ageing, Development and Social Protection
Today for a growing proportion of retirees (though by no means all), the end of work heralds not poverty and economic dependency but instead a new life-course stage of active and well-resourced leisure. A key determinant of fortune in old age is now the individual’s earlier labour force history. If this is a history of continuous employment in a pensionable job at average or aboveaverage wages, then retirement is likely to be financially secure. But if the previous work history involved long earnings gaps, or part-time work, or below-average pay and a non-pensionable job (all of which are more common for women than for men), then retirement will almost inevitably be a time of reduced financial capacity and dependency on 30 DEVELOPMENT, SOCIAL CHANGE AND WELLBEING IN LATER LIFE public welfare.
Formal social protection programmes may be able to do much to reduce potential associations between old age and vulnerability. Economic development influences the capacity of societies to pay for such programmes, although there is also an important element of public choice about where and to whom to allocate resources. The countries examined in this section provide useful perspectives about different stages in the evolution of such programmes: a case where relatively inclusive welfare schemes are long-established (the UK), an example of recent, rapid extension (Brazil), a country where provision has been cut back (Ukraine), and one where services are at an incipient stage of development (China).
These issues are particularly evident in developing countries, where processes of change have usually occurred more abruptly than in the West. However, as with many debates in ageing and development, such claims are largely unevidenced, and empirical research suggests a more complex picture. The chapters in this section reveal a variety of experience, both within countries and across them. The discussions of Brazil and China find strong regional variations in the impact of development on elders’ wellbeing.