By Elizabeth Wiskemann (auth.)
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Instantly after the Allied invasion of Italy in September 1943, Mussolini was once deposed and the hot Italian executive switched aspects. The German occupying forces speedily freed Il Duce and ruthlessly disarmed the Italian military; and from then till the tip of the conflict in April 1945 Italian troops fought on each side - with the forces of the hot Fascist 'Salo Republic', within the Allied 'Co-Belligerent Forces', and within the Partisan stream.
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93· THE OPENING TO THE LEFT 45 The next thing La Malfa did was in August 1962 to establish a Comitato Nazionale per la Programmazione Economica (or CNPE) under his own formal chairmanship as head of his ministry, but with Saraceno as vice-chairman and chief of the experts nominated to the committee by the minister. On the committee which got to work in September, there also sat representatives of capital and labour, that is to say of industrialists, landowners, bankers and trade unions of differing political complexions.
So there was an exodus of southerners to the northern cities just when it was planned to open new factories in the south - but of course no one in the south believed in such plans. One of the difficulties between north and south Italy ever since Italy was united had been that southerners, because they were poor, had taken ill-paid small official posts in the north or in Rome, posts which northerners despised or did not need. Milan, Turin and after 1 918 even Bolzano always seemed full of policemen or postmen or tax collectors from the south.
In southern Italy the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno seemed to work very slowly and many peasants who had applied for new plots on expropriated land were disappointed. Politicians from both Left and Right told them that they were being cheated by the Christian Democrats. The young men, if adventurous, had gone off for temporary jobs to Switzerland ever since the war had stopped; later they had gone to Western Germany too. Now in the second half of the fifties 32 ITALY SINCE 1945 they heard of jobs in industry in northern Italy where there would be no foreign language to learn or foreign currency to understand.