By Dr Christine Shaw (It
This can be a pioneering exam of the effect of the an important significant section of the Italian Wars at the society, politics and tradition of Italy, and the way the event of those campaigns and their results affected the opponents and how they observed Italy and the Italians. The essays disguise a vast variety of matters from fortifications and army association to civic and royal ritual, song and musicians to universities, political society and international relations to the historical past of principles. jointly they throw gentle at the complicated results of the wars, how Italians attempted to give an explanation for and to react to the dramatic alterations those introduced, and the way the eu powers who conquered and occupied Italian states handled their new matters.
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This last stronghold of French power in Naples was to fall shortly afterwards. 2 Machiavelli in The Art of War wrote that the French were defeated by the winter and not by the Spaniards: ‘dal verno, e non dagli Spagnoli’: Arte della guerra, Book VI (Art of War, ed. and trans. C. Lynch (Chicago, 2003), p. 140. 3 Jean d’Auton, Chroniques de Louis XII, ed. R de Maulde La Clavière (Paris, 1885–95), III, pp. 263 ﬀ, 291 ﬀ. What relatively little is known about the author is well summarised by P. Contamine, ‘Jean d’Auton, historien de Louis XII’, in P.
179–81; on Cardinal d’Amboise (Rouen) and the conclaves of 1503, see Christine Shaw, Julius II. The Warrior Pope (Oxford, 1993), pp. 117–23. 9 As reported in February 1503: d’Auton, Chroniques, III, p. 136. 10 In the early part of 1503 the king’s control may, in part, have been aﬀected by his own illness, but by this time matters in Naples had been allowed to slide too long. 12 Underlying all these elaborate preparations was the acute ﬁnancial situation, seemingly made worse by the endemic corruption of the oﬃcials disbursing the money.
E. Mallett and J. R. Hale, The Military Organization of a Renaissance State. Venice c. 1400 to 1617 (Cambridge, 1984), pp. 350–2. 35 H. Butters, Governors and Government in Early Sixteenth Century Florence, 1502–1519 (Oxford, 1985), p. , p. 105 for a fuller discussion of the establishment and performance of the militia. See also B. Wicht, L’idée de milice et le modèle suisse dans la pensée de Machiavel (Lausanne, 1995). 36 Earlier in 1499 nine sculpted heads (seven in marble and two in bronze) were ordered by Gié from Florence.