By Graeme Morton, David A. Wilson
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Additional info for Irish and Scottish Encounters with Indigenous Peoples: Canada, the United States, New Zealand, and Australia
2 One can easily compile a list of more than 100 books and articles that incorporate this estimate. They run from Frank Thistlethwaite’s paper that began the modern era of European diaspora research to state-of-the-art econometric histories by Jeffrey Williamson. See Thistlethwaite, “Migration from Europe Overseas,” 35; and Hatton and Williamson, Age of Mass Migration, 3, where the number is 55 million for 1850–1914. See also O’Rourke and Williamson, Globalization and History, 119, where the number is 60 million for 1820–1920, a comparable figure.
1, 21. ” Slavery ended in Brazil in 1888, in Puerto Rico in 1876, and in Cuba in 1886. On the entire history of abolitionism, see Drescher, Abolition. One should add that in addition to illegal transatlantic slavery (in unknown fugitive numbers), a transpacific trade existed, the so-called “blackbirding,” which consisted of the seizure of Melanesians and Polynesians and their sale to South Americans in the last one-third of the nineteenth century. Eltis, “Free and Coerced,” table 1, 256. , table 3, 278.
10 All of this is consequential for contextualizing the Great European Migration because one would like to know with some rough accuracy the dimensions of the Indigenous populations of the Americas that the Europeans encountered in the early 1800s, what was done to these populations by early Contact, and what continued to occur throughout the nineteenth century. The evidentiary base is simply stated. It is five-fold. First, occasional direct estimates of segments of the Aboriginal population were made by contemporaries – priests and military and civil officials.