Illustrated pharmacology for nurses by Terje Simonsen; et al

By Terje Simonsen; et al

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Knowledge of the blood supply to the liver and kidneys is vital for understanding how these organs contribute to the elimination of drugs from the body. 1. 1 Absorption, distribution and elimination. A drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, distributed to tissue, redistributed to the blood, and then eliminated from it. The liver and kidneys are the two most important organs for elimination. 2. Container A is the central container to which water is added (analogous to a drug being added to the blood), while B and C represent peripheral containers (analogous to different body tissues such as muscle tissue, fatty tissue and brain tissue).

High lipid solubility is needed by a substance for it to be distributed rapidly from the blood to different tissues, especially across the blood–brain barrier. Lipid solubility is a function of the size and electrical charge of a drug molecule. Small molecules move more easily across biological membranes than larger molecules. In terms of electrical charge, a molecule could be non-polar (without electrical charge in parts of the molecule or as a whole molecule) or dipolar (one part of the molecule has a negative charge while another part has a positive charge, but the molecule as a whole is neutral – most drugs belong to this group).

They are ligand-gated in that a ligand is required to open or close the channel. Examples of such ion channels are those which allow sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride ions to move across the membrane. Receptors for neurotransmitters in synapses are examples of ligand-gated ion channels. In this case, the neurotransmitter binds to the receptor and, in so doing, opens up ion channels. 11. 11 Closed and open ion channel. When a ligand binds to an ion channel, the channel can be opened so that ions may flow through it.

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