Il Secondo Cervello by Michael D. Gershon

By Michael D. Gershon

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«Sappiamo che, in line with quanto il concetto possa apparire inadeguato, il sistema gastroenterico è dotato di un cervello. Lo sgradevole intestino è più intellettuale del cuore e potrebbe avere una capacità ““emozionale”” superiore. È il solo organo a contenere un sistema nervoso intrinseco in grado di mediare i riflessi in completa assenza di enter dal cervello o dal midollo spinale. L’’evoluzione ci ha giocato uno scherzetto. […] Il sistema nervoso enterico è una curiosità, un residuo che abbiamo conservato dal nostro passato evolutivo. Di certo, non pare qualcosa che possa attirare l’’interesse di tutti, invece dovrebbe. L’’evoluzione è un revisore potente. Le parti del corpo futili o non assolutamente necessarie hanno poche possibilità di farcela a superare le difficoltà della selezione naturale. Tuttavia, un sistema nervoso enterico è stato presente in ciascuno dei nostri predecessori nel corso dei milioni di anni di storia dell’’evoluzione che ci separa dal primo animale dotato di spina dorsale. Quindi, il sistema nervoso enterico deve essere più di una reliquia. Il sistema nervoso enterico è, di fatto, un centro di elaborazione dati moderno e pieno di vita, che ci consente di portare a termine alcuni compiti molto importanti e spiacevoli senza alcuno sforzo mentale.»

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IQ tests are optimally useful when they are interpreted from an information-processing model. 5. Hypotheses generated from IQ test profiles should be supported with data from multiple sources. IQ Tasks Measure What the Individual Has Learned This concept comes directly from Wesman’s (1968) introduction of the intelligent testing approach. The content of all tasks, whether verbal or nonverbal, is learned within a culture. The learning may take place formally in the school, casually in the home, or incidentally through everyday life.

265). 70s (Bouchard, 1996, Table 1), and, importantly, addressed the criticisms of the previous investi- gations. Neither the criticism regarding the degree of contact (which was measured) nor the criticism that the similarity in the home placements inflated the correlations, was borne out; the substantial coefficients could not be ex- CHAPTER 2 HERITABILITY AND MALLEABILITY OF IQ AND ATTACKS ON THE IQ CONSTRUCT plained by these alleged confounding variables. 72 according to Plomin and Petrill (1997).

The content of all tasks, whether verbal or nonverbal, is learned within a culture. The learning may take place formally in the school, casually in the home, or incidentally through everyday life. As a measure of past learning, the IQ test is best thought of as a kind of achievement test, not as a simple measure of aptitude. [that are] not tied to the content of any specific course or field of study” (Anastasi, 1988, p. 330). The interaction between learning potential and availability of learning experiences is too complex to ponder for any given person, making the whole genetics–environment issue of theoretical value, but impractical and irrelevant for the interpretation of that person’s test profile.

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