Heinemann Chemistry

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We write this arrangement as: number of electrons in the subshell shell number 1s22s22p63s1 1s 2s 3s type of subshell 2p Example 2: Iron 3p Iron has 26 electrons. 21 The order of energy levels in atoms can be remembered using this geometric pattern. 30 02 02 It is customary to group the subshells of shells, so this is more usually written as: 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2 Notice that the 3d-subshell, which has five orbitals and could therefore hold ten electrons, is only partially filled in atoms of iron.

1 The properties that relate to individual atoms of the element. Electronic configuration is one such atomic property. 2 The properties that reflect the way atoms or groups of atoms interact with each other. Such interactions would include those between atoms in a piece of aluminium, those between oxygen atoms in a sample of oxygen gas and those between aluminium and oxygen when a piece of aluminium is left in the air. These three examples involve three very different types of interactions. They will be covered in greater detail in Chapters 5–7.

Fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine are all coloured and are also highly reactive, especially fluorine and chlorine. Their electronic configurations are: F Cl Br I 38 03 03 1s22s22p5 1s22s22p63s23p5 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p5 These elements also have similar outer-shell electronic configurations; in this case each element has s2p5 as the outer shell. The electrons in the outer shell of an atom are known as the valence electrons. indd 38 25/9/06 4:03:29 PM !

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