Hallucinations by Oliver Sacks

By Oliver Sacks

Have you obvious whatever that wasn't fairly there? Heard anyone name your identify in an empty apartment? Sensed somebody following you and circled to discover nothing?

Hallucinations don’t belong utterly to the insane. even more often, they're associated with sensory deprivation, intoxication, ailment, or harm. individuals with migraines may even see shimmering arcs of sunshine or tiny, Lilliputian figures of animals and folks. individuals with failing eyesight, mockingly, may well develop into immersed in a hallucinatory visible international. Hallucinations may be as a result of an easy fever or maybe the act of waking or falling asleep, whilst humans have visions starting from luminous blobs of colour to superbly specified faces or terrifying ogres. those who find themselves bereaved could obtain comforting “visits” from the departed. In a few stipulations, hallucinations may end up in non secular epiphanies or perhaps the sensation of leaving one’s personal physique.

Humans have regularly sought such life-changing visions, and for millions of years have used hallucinogenic compounds to accomplish them. As a tender health professional in California within the Sixties, Oliver Sacks had either a private and a pro curiosity in psychedelics. those, together with his early migraine reviews, introduced a lifelong research into the kinds of hallucinatory adventure.

Here, along with his traditional beauty, interest, and compassion, Dr. Sacks weaves jointly tales of his sufferers and of his personal mind-altering stories to light up what hallucinations let us know in regards to the association and constitution of our brains, how they've got prompted each culture’s folklore and artwork, and why the potential of hallucination is found in us all, an essential component of the human situation.

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Hallucinations

Have you obvious whatever that wasn't fairly there? Heard anyone name your identify in an empty condo? Sensed a person following you and circled to discover nothing?

Hallucinations don’t belong fully to the insane. even more mostly, they're associated with sensory deprivation, intoxication, disorder, or harm. individuals with migraines may even see shimmering arcs of sunshine or tiny, Lilliputian figures of animals and folks. individuals with failing eyesight, ironically, may well develop into immersed in a hallucinatory visible global. Hallucinations may be caused by an easy fever or maybe the act of waking or falling asleep, whilst humans have visions starting from luminous blobs of colour to superbly special faces or terrifying ogres. those who find themselves bereaved may possibly obtain comforting “visits” from the departed. In a few stipulations, hallucinations can result in non secular epiphanies or perhaps the sensation of leaving one’s personal physique.

Humans have continually sought such life-changing visions, and for hundreds of thousands of years have used hallucinogenic compounds to accomplish them. As a tender medical professional in California within the Nineteen Sixties, Oliver Sacks had either a private and a pro curiosity in psychedelics. those, with his early migraine reports, introduced a lifelong research into the kinds of hallucinatory adventure.

Here, along with his traditional beauty, interest, and compassion, Dr. Sacks weaves jointly tales of his sufferers and of his personal mind-altering stories to light up what hallucinations let us know concerning the association and constitution of our brains, how they've got inspired each culture’s folklore and artwork, and why the opportunity of hallucination is found in us all, an integral part of the human situation.

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R. DANDAMUDI, A. ARORA, J. STANKIEWICZ, R. BAKSHI Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become important in the early diagnosis and monitoring of various neurologic disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). MRI has emerged as a key supportive therapeutic outcome measure in MS-related clinical trials. The limitations of conventional MRI surrogates have driven researchers to develop better biomarkers, including those capturing destructive aspects of the disease. In this chapter, we discuss the most recent data highlighting the role of hypointense lesions on T1-weighted images (black holes; BH) and gray matter (GM) damage in the MRI assessment of MS.

Neurology 60:44-51 94. Jones CK, Riddehough A, Li DKB et al (2001) MRI cerebral atrophy in relapsingremitting MS: results from the PRISMS trial. Neurology 56(Suppl 3):A379 95. Gasperini C, Paolillo A, Giugni E et al (2002) MRI brain volume changes in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon beta-1a. Mult Scler 8:119-123 96. Molyneux PD, Kappos L, Polman C et al (2000) The effect of interferon beta-1b treatment on MRI measures of cerebral atrophy in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Conclusions The mechanisms involved in atrophy are complex. They partly reflect axonal loss, whether it be through a secondary process such as anterograde or retrograde degeneration, primary neural pathology, or a combination of both. The process is almost certainly multifactorial, and is likely to reflect clinical variability in MS. Both brain and spinal cord measures of atrophy have proved to be clinically relevant, and there is a suggestion that measures of tissue loss in the brain and cord may be complementary, given that regional atrophy may have different clinical consequences.

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