By Susan J. Carroll
Gender and Elections bargains a scientific, full of life, multi-faceted account of the function of gender within the electoral technique in the course of the 2004 elections. This well timed, but enduring, quantity moves a stability among highlighting crucial advancements for ladies as citizens and applicants within the 2004 elections and delivering a extra long term, in-depth research of the ways in which gender has contributed to shaping the contours and results of electoral politics within the usa. person chapters show the significance of gender in realizing and analyzing presidential elections, voter participation and turnout, balloting offerings, congressional elections, the participation of African American girls, the help of political events and women's organisations, candidate communications with citizens, and kingdom elections. with out query, this e-book is the main entire, trustworthy, and reliable source at the function of gender in electoral politics.
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Again a Catch-22: women won’t win because they haven’t yet won. Gender analysis makes visible a less obvious disqualifier for women: experience. Presidents have traditionally come from four positions: governor, senator, vice president, or military hero. Again due to long-term exclusion, all of the top male candidates except Edwards had logged considerably more time in these roles than had Moseley Braun. Further, Graham had held both senate and gubernatorial seats, something no woman has done. Because recent presidents have emerged from 14:49 P1: IWV 0521844924c01 CB1011/Carroll 0 521 84492 4 28 November 24, 2005 Georgia Duerst-Lahti governorships more than other positions, Dean and Graham held an edge.
The press covers candidates who undertake “testing the water” activities and also can create potential candidates simply by mentioning that some individuals could be candidates. Years one and two of any election cycle focus upon factors that provide candidates strategic advantages to win the next election. Chief among these factors is whether the race includes an incumbent president or is an open seat. In 2004, George W. Bush ran as an incumbent president, and he was assumed to be running for re-election as of the day he was declared the winner in 2000.
Thinking of men as having gender instead of “naturally” coinciding with a universal standard has occurred only quite recently. An institution becomes gendered because it takes on characteristics or preferences of the founders, incumbents, and important external actors who influence it over time. In doing so, these founders and influential incumbents create the institution’s formal and informal structures, rules, and practices, reflecting their preferred mode of organizing. If men have played an overwhelming role in an institution’s creation and evolution, it is only “natural” that masculine preferences become embedded in its ideal nature.