Free and Fair Elections by Guy S. Goodwin-Gill

By Guy S. Goodwin-Gill

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He noted also that, despite occasional backsliding, ‘democracy is the one norm on which there is almost universal consensus’, citing the strength of the Inter-Parliamentary Union as ‘a good barometer of democratic progress’. , 18-25. Mr. , 22. UNGA res. 55/96, ‘Promoting and consolidating democracy’, 4 December 2000, adopted by 157 votes to none, with 16 abstentions (Bahrain, Bhutan, Brunei Darussalam, China, Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Honduras, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Maldives, Myanmar, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Viet Nam; Honduras subsequently advised that it had intended to vote in favour).

Pal emphasized that India’s choice of democracy reflected a consensus that, ‘precisely because... 87 The resolution further calls upon States to promote and consolidate democracy by, among others: ‘(d) Developing, nurturing and maintaining an electoral system that provides for the free and fair expression of the people’s will through genuine and periodic elections, in particular by: (i) Guaranteeing that everyone can exercise his or her right to take part in the government of his or her country, directly or through freely chosen representatives; 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 Ibid.

Para. 1(d), (e). ef. 55/96 above, 21-2. Commission on Human Rights resolution 2001/41, ‘Continuing dialogue on measures to promote and consolidate democracy’, 23 April 2001 (44-0-9), para. 4 (emphasis supplied). Commission on Human Rights resolution 2002/46, ‘ Further measures to promote and consolidate democracy’, 23 April 2002 (43-0-9), para. 1 (emphasis supplied); see also Resolution 2003/36, para. 1. - 31 - 4. Recognizes the comprehensive nature of democracy as a system of governance that encompasses procedures and substance, formal institutions and informal processes, majorities and minorities, mechanisms and mentalities, laws and their enforcement, government and civil society; 5.

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