By Michael W. Doyle
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It has always been a rule that the weak should be subject to the strong; and "besides, we consider that we are worthy of our power" (I. 76). " That fear compelled Athens, they argued, to engage in imperial rule (I. 74). Following the defeat of the Persian expeditionary force at Salamis much of the Aegean remained under Persian control, and Persia remained a great and threatening power. Following Pausanias' alienation of the allies, the Greeks called in the Athenians to help liberate the Aegean and Ionia.
It had no substantial social fragment or facet, apart from the army, capable of expanding abroad to share the burdens and feed on the benefits of imperial rule, and it was limited to what its armies could hold in Laconia and Messenia. Indeed, holding these two regio~s in a state of servitud~eemed to absorb all Spartan energy and to stimulate much of Sparta's fear of Athenian subversion. Yet oligarchs turned to Sparta for protection from the threat of democratic subversion inspired by Athens, and from this circumstance and from the superiority of Spartan arms, Sparta exercised a hegemony over the Peloponnesian League.
68 Historical Sociology of Empires efficiently III existing markets, they will find prices moving against them. ,,28 Commercial expansion required imperial expansion. The protection of commerce from the depredations of pirates and rival cities called for a patrolling fleet, which in turn required naval outposts. Opening up foreign lands and their resources to commercial penetration also demanded an imperial presence when oligarchies (as did Sparta) sought to avoid commercial contact in order to prevent the mobilizatiGn of their democratically inclined middle and lower classes.