Elections and Democracy after Communism? by Erik S. Herron (auth.)

By Erik S. Herron (auth.)

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26, 2000 Mar. 14, 2004 Mar. 2, 2008 Apr. 25, 1993 Dec. 12, 1993 Tajikistan Feb. 26/Mar. 12, 1995 Feb. 27/Mar. 12, 2000 Feb. 27/Mar. 13, 2005 Nov. 6, 1994 Nov. 6, 1999 Nov. 6, 2006 Nov. 6, 1994 Sep. 26, 1999 Jun. 22, 2003 Turkmenistan Dec. 6, 1992 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec. 11, 1994/ Jan. 8, 1995 Dec. 12, 1999 Apr. 6, 2003 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec. 19, 2004 Dec. 9, 2007 (Khalk Maslikhaty) Dec. 14, 20088 Jun. 21, 1992 Feb. 11, 2007 Jan. 15, 1994 Ukraine Nov. 20, 1994 Mar. 29, 1998 Mar. 31, 2002 Mar. 26, 2006 Sep.

While some post-Soviet countries eschewed the codification of strong presidential authority, others endowed chief executives with sweeping powers. 11 Countries with stronger presidents have more closely followed an authoritarian model. In many countries, first secretaries of regional communist parties successfully navigated the transition to emerge as postcommunist presidents: Heydar Aliyev (Azerbaijan), Eduard Shevardnadze (Georgia), Nursultan Nazarbayev (Kazakhstan), Algirdas Brazauskas (Lithuania), Rakhmon Nabiyev (Tajikistan), Saparmurat Niyazov (Turkmenistan), and Islam Karimov (Uzbekistan).

21, 1992 Feb. 11, 2007 Jan. 15, 1994 Ukraine Nov. 20, 1994 Mar. 29, 1998 Mar. 31, 2002 Mar. 26, 2006 Sep. 30, 2007 Jul. 10, 1994 Oct. 31/Nov. 14, 1999 Oct. 31/Nov. 21/Dec. 26, 2004 April 16, 2000 Uzbekistan Dec. 25, 1994/Jan. 8/22,1995 Dec. 5/19, 1999 Dec. 26, 2004/Jan. 9, 2005 Jan. 9, 2000 Dec. 23, 2007 Mar. 26, 1995 Jan. ua/). their democratic counterparts. Indeed, the underlying processes generating election data—for example, in Estonia and Turkmenistan—reflect democratic standards in the former and authoritarian manipulation in the latter.

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