By Douglas B. Bamforth
A part of a sequence on interdisciplinary contributions to archaeology, the ebook was once initially accomplished through the writer as a doctoral undertaking. incorporated are sections on source constitution and human association, grassland ecology, ungulate ecology, styles of forage creation at the nice Plains, and p
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Extra resources for Ecology and Human Organization on the Great Plains
Maximum nutrient concentration, though, occurs at a higher level of grazing pressure than does maximum forage production (McNaughton 1976:696). The intensity of wildebeest grazing in the Serengeti, in fact, is above the level that is optimum for forage production, suggesting that grazing ungulates feed in ways that maximize nutrient rather than forage production. Weinmann (1955:588-589) presents data illustrating this last point. Under several different rates of experimental clipping of South African range grasses, Weinmann found that a rate of two clips per season maximized forage production (measured in pounds of forage per acre).
1973; Coppock et al. 1983a). First, physiological differences between these two groups of plants appear to lead warm-season species to contain lower protein concentrations than cool-season species (Brown 1978). In addition, because warm-season species tend to store more protein in more durable plant parts than do cool-season species, they are also less digestible (Akin and Burdick 1977). This last difference appears to be greatest in the fall, when one study found coolseason grasses showing 15% to 20% greater digestibility than warm season species (Coppock et al.
The development of a regular pattern of human aggregation requires external conditions favoring aggregation, a mechanism leading individual families to aggregate and a sufficiently productive local resource base to support large groups of people while they are together. As heterogeneity increases with larger and/or more permanent aggregations, additional requirements appear. First, for a distinct subgrouping within a society to maintain its identity, its members must have contact with one another on a regular or reasonably regular basis.