By Dorothy H. Crawford
First found in 1976, and lengthy considered as an simply viable virus affecting remoted rural groups, Ebola rocketed to international prominence in 2014 as a dangerous epidemic swept via Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia in West Africa. hundreds of thousands of individuals died because the terribly contagious sickness unfold swiftly from villages to city centres. preliminary quarantine responses proved frequently too little and too overdue, and the clinical infrastructure of the affected nations struggled to manage. by means of August 2014, a number of months after the beginning of the outbreak, the WHO declared the epidemic a public overall healthiness emergency and foreign reduction groups and volunteers started to pour in. yet halting the epidemic proved to be highly demanding, not just when it comes to the practicalities of facing the sheer numbers of sufferers sporting the hugely infectious virus, yet in facing social and cultural limitations. the writer, Dorothy Crawford, visited Sierra Leone whereas the epidemic used to be ongoing and met with these at the frontline within the struggle opposed to the virus.-- Read more...
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Extra resources for Ebola : profile of a killer virus
Funds were made available for research into a number of deadly microbes and production of Ebola vaccines and effective therapies became a top priority. More category four laboratories were built and bio-defence funding for Ebola research rocketed. It is thanks to this sudden injection of cash that we know a fair bit about Ebola virus and the pathological processes underlying the disease it causes. Also, on a practical front, several prototype vaccines and anti-viral agents were in production when the largest ever Ebola epidemic hit West Africa in 2014 (see Chapter 7).
Given that the body of an Ebola victim is often covered in blood, faeces, and vomit, all of which contain the active virus, it is no wonder that those involved are at very high risk of becoming infected. Just one cluster of cases mystified the team because they were unable to trace a link between it and any other cases. Sufferers had attended neither a hospital nor a funeral, but the mystery was solved when one survivor revealed the whole story. Apparently a young, pregnant woman developed a severe headache after returning from the antenatal clinic at Yambuku mission hospital.
These attract a variety of other immune cells to the site of infection, causing local inflammation. This in turn initiates a cascade of cytokine release that is essential to orchestrate the specific phase of the 43 ebol a: profile of a k iller v irus immune response, which is mediated by antibody-producing, and virus-killing, lymphocytes. Ebola virus paralyses the immune response, so enhancing its own growth and spread within the body. When the virus meets a macrophage at its site of entry in skin or mucous membranes it infects the macrophage before the cell has a chance to engulf the virus.