Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for by Dr Benjamin Reilly

By Dr Benjamin Reilly

Reilly analyzes the layout of electoral structures for divided societies, interpreting numerous divided societies which make the most of ''vote-pooling'' electoral systems--including Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Northern eire and Fiji. He exhibits that political associations which inspire the improvement of broad-based, aggregative political events and the place campaigning politicians have incentives to draw votes from a variety of ethnic teams can, below definite stipulations, inspire a average, accommodatory political pageant and therefore impact the trajectory of democratization in transitional states. this can be a problem to orthodox techniques to democracy and clash administration.

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Example text

7 Ware used this example to show that `contrary to the generally received opinion, the system of preferential voting is applicable to the choice of a single candidate' (Hare 1873, 353). Ware's experiment demonstrated that, where no candidate has an absolute majority, the sequence of elimination of the lowest-placed candidate and the transfer of his or her votes to continuing candidates could work just as well for singlemember elections as for Hare's more complex scheme of proportional representation: thus the alternative vote was born.

The Deakin government introduced another bill for AV in August 1906, but it lapsed with the Parliament's dissolution. A Liberal private member's bill in 1911 met a similar fate (Reid and Forrest 1989, 115). It was not until 1918 that AV was ®nally introduced for federal elections to the House of Representatives, after having previously been introduced at the state level by Liberal governments in Western Australia (1907) and Victoria (1911). The decision was prompted more by considerations of partisan advantage than by the ®ner points of electoral theory.

After Cook's defeat, the issue lay dormant until 1917 when the newly formed Nationalist Party, under the leadership of W. M. Hughes, was able to form a governing majority. Interest in preferential voting gathered pace in 1918 following a by-election for the seat of Swan in Western Australia, which was won in a FPTP contest by a Labor candidate with 35 per cent of the vote despite the three non-Labor candidates collectively mustering 65 per cent. When this result threatened to be repeated at another byelection, with a similar constellation of political forces, in the Victorian electorate of Corangamite later that same year, pressure for electoral reform from the non-Labor side of politics intensi®ed.

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