Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam, 2014 Edition by Princeton Review

By Princeton Review

THE PRINCETON assessment will get RESULTS. Get the entire prep you must ace the revised AP Chemistry examination with 2 full-length perform exams, thorough subject experiences, and confirmed ideas that will help you ranking higher.

The AP Chemistry direction and try out are present process significant adjustments, with a new edition of the examination debuting in may well 2014. within Cracking the AP Chemistry Exam, you will find:

2 full-length perform tests (with exact factors) that come with the hot a number of selection and developed reaction query types
• professional topic studies for all attempt subject matters that mirror the alterations to the 2014 AP Chemistry examination, together with newly-incorporated try out issues and "Big principles" organization
• perform drills on the finish of every chapter
• step by step options & suggestions for each component of the exam
• A accomplished record of key chemistry equations and constants

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Example text

The added electron shells shield the nucleus, causing it to have less of an effect on the electrons of other atoms. Therefore, iodine will exert the least pull on the electrons of other atoms. (c) Atomic radius increases from Li to Na to K because electrons are being added in higher energy levels, which are farther away from the nucleus; therefore, the K atom is the largest of the three. (d) Atomic radius increases from Al to Mg to Na because protons are being removed from the nucleus while the energy levels of the valence electrons remains unchanged.

The absorbed energy shows up as a dark area on the absorption spectrum. A hydrogen atom gives off energy when its electrons jump back down to lower energy levels. Electromagnetic waves, which are emitted at these jumps, show up as bright areas on the emission spectrum. In an atom, energy is quantized, which means that electrons can exist only at specific energy levels. When an electron jumps from one energy level to another, it will always emit or absorb exactly the same amount of energy, and because ΔE = hv, for a particular energy change, radiation of the same frequency will always be emitted or absorbed.

A) The first ionization energy for magnesium is greater than the first ionization energy for calcium. (b) The first and second ionization energies for calcium are comparable, but the third ionization energy is much greater. (c) Solid sodium conducts electricity, but solid sodium chloride does not. (d) The first ionization energy for aluminum is lower than the first ionization energy for magnesium. 2. Use your knowledge of the periodic table of the elements to answer the following questions. (a) Explain the trend in electronegativity from P to S to Cl.

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