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The linkages among the outmost clusters and the atomic order within them. However, various views about clusters and definitions can sometimes raise enough confusion that conclusions such as “it is useless (or misleading) to give a description of the whole (QC) structure” have appeared as the summary of a panel discussion during the Ninth International Conference on Quasicrystals (ICQ9) . The reasons may on one hand relate to the structural complexities of ACs (and perhaps also to the quality of the refinements achieved) and, on the other hand, to diverse structural descriptions that different authors have given for nominally the same AC structures.
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The number of axial ligands and the symmetry of Pcs are mainly controlled by the nature of central metal atoms. The second effective method is the employment of peripherally substituted ligands [49–68]. Almost all Pcs of this type are synthesized by using substituted precursors such as substituted phthalonitriles as starting materials, although in principle this type of Pc can be prepared directly by chemical modification of the Pcs themselves. Generally, the preparation conditions of peripherally functionalized Pcs based on substituted precursors are softer than those employed in the synthesis of conventional unsubstituted Pcs, because the increased solubility of starting substituted precursors and the resulting peripherally substituted Pcs allow the employment of a wide variety of solvents.