By I. Marsic
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Additional resources for Computer Networks - Performance and QOS
2). The sender usually doubles the range of backoff delays for every failed transmission, which is why this method is also known as binary exponential backoff. Increasing the backoff range increases the number of choices for the random delay. This, in turn, makes it less likely that several stations will select the same delay value and, therefore, reduces the probability of repeated collisions. It is like first deciding how long to wait by tossing a coin (two choices: heads or tails); if both make the same choice and again experience a collision, then they try by rolling a dice (six choices), etc.
In general case it is required that N ≤ W. The sliding window sender should store in local memory (buffer) all outstanding packets for which the acknowledgement has not yet been received. Therefore, the send buffer size should be N packets large. The sent-but-unacknowledged packets are called “in-flight” packets or “intransit” packets. The sender must ensure that the number of in-flight packets is always ≤ N. The sliding window protocol is actually a family of protocols that have some characteristics in common and others different.
Buffering generally uses the fastest memory chips and circuits and, therefore, the most expensive memory, which means that the buffering space is scarce. Disk storage is cheap but not practical for packet buffering because it provides relatively slow data access. During network transit, different packets can take different routes to the destination, and thus arrive in a different order than sent. The receiver may temporarily store (buffer) the out-of-order packets until the missing packets arrive.