By C. Howe, J. E. Coward, T. W. Fenger (auth.), Hein Fraenkael-Conrat, Robert R. Wagner (eds.)
The time turns out ripe for a severe compendium of that phase of the organic universe we name viruses. Virology, as a technological know-how, having handed only in the near past via its descriptive section of naming and num bering, has most likely reached that degree at which quite few new really new-viruses may be came upon. brought on through the highbrow probes and methods of molecular biology, genetics, biochemical cytology, and excessive solution microscopy and spectroscopy, the sector has skilled a real info explosion. Few severe makes an attempt were made to chronicle those occasions. This complete sequence, so that it will contain a few 6000 pages in a complete of approximately 18 volumes, represents a dedication by way of a wide team of energetic investigators to investigate, digest, and expostulate at the nice mass of information on the subject of viruses, a lot of that's now amorphous and disjointed, and scattered all through a large literature. during this means, we are hoping to put the total box in viewpoint, and to strengthen an invalua ble reference and sourcebook for researchers and scholars in any respect degrees. This sequence is designed as a continuum that may be entered anyplace, yet which additionally offers a logical development of constructing evidence and built-in concepts.
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Extra resources for Comprehensive Virology: Vol. 16: Virus-Host Interactions: Viral Invasion, Persistence, and Disease
The functional grouping on the HA glycoprotein, however, has not been absolutely defined. Treatment of influenza virus with bacterial glycosidases cleaved up to 25% of the carbohydrate (galactose and Nglucosamine) from the virion, mostly from HAl> without altering hemagglutination or infectivity. Similar treatment of purified HA resulted in loss of 50% of carbohydrates, including oligosaccharides, but little or no loss of HA activity. These findings suggest that carbohydrate accessible to enzyme may not be essential for attachment (Collins and Knight, 1978).
The latter is recognized as the "fusion factor" (Scheid and Choppin, 1974; Scheid, 1978) which appears to mediate the entry of paramyxoviruses into susceptible cells. HN and F glycoproteins of Sendai virus are immunologically distinct from one another (Orvell and Norrby, 1977). , 1974); the two kinds of spikes are separable from one another by sucrose density isoelectrofocusing of Tween-20-disrupted virions. As with orthomyxoviruses, interaction with erythrocytes has revealed some of the essential features which may also govern viral penetration into susceptible nucleated cells.
The fusion process was temperature dependent. Viral antigen could be detected over the membrane of infected cells by specific reactivity with hybrid antiviral-antiferritin antibody. The specifically stained areas of cell membrane were otherwise morphologically identical to adjacent nonreactive segments of membrane and there were no morphological remnants of viral envelope. These results are consistent with the fluid model of the cell membrane in which viral antigens are transported along the plane of the bilayer to areas remote from the sites of initial viral attachment.