Calculus the Easy Way by Douglas Downing

By Douglas Downing

Longtime favorites for either lecture room and self-teaching support, Barron's effortless method sequence titles assessment a large choice of matters, providing primary strategies in transparent, easy-to-understand language and examples. Calculus the straightforward means covers all of the necessities of a first-year calculus direction, together with derivatives, integrals, trignometric capabilities, ordinary logarithms, exponential services, and an creation to differential equations.

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3. Let a < b. We have shown that, if f is a well behaved function with f 0 (x) 0 whenever a Ä x Ä b, then f (t) Ä f (s) whenever a Ä t Ä s Ä b. ) If f 0 (x) > 0 whenever a Ä x Ä b, we can make the following improvement. Suppose that a Ä t < s Ä b. Set y D (t C s)/2. Explain why we can find a u > 0 with u Ä (t s)/2 such that jf (y C h) f (y) f 0 (y)hj Ä f 0 (y) jhj 2 whenever jhj Ä u. Show that f (y C u) f (y) C f 0 (y) u 2 and deduce that f (t) < f (s). 5 Maxima and minima Consider the following problem.

We shall not evaluate many integrals in the course of this book, but we note that the various rules for differentiation are reflected in useful tricks for integration. In what follows we assume that all our functions are well behaved. Integration by parts. Suppose that F 0 (x) D f (x) and G0 (x) D g(x). By the product rule (see page 19) applied to H (x) D F (x)G(x) we have [F (x)G(x)]ba D [H (x)]ba D b D b H 0 (x) dx a F 0 (x)G(x) C F (x)G0 (x) dx a b D a b D a b F 0 (x)G(x) dx C f (x)G(x) dx C F (x)G0 (x) dx a b F (x)g(x) dx.

Mathematicians pronounce ‘Co(h)’ as ‘plus little o of h’ but I very strongly recommend that the reader pronounces it as ‘plus an error term which diminishes faster than linear’ or ‘plus an error term which diminishes faster than jhj’. In advanced courses, the notion of differentiability is made completely precise by using the following form of words. 3. A function f is differentiable at t with derivative f 0 (t) if, given any u > 0, we can find a v > 0 such that jf (t C h) f (t) f 0 (t)hj Ä ujhj whenever jhj Ä v.

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