By Michael Lewis; Tom W Young
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The refrigeration effect (H 2 - HI) is much greater than the heat equivalence of the work required to produce this effect (H3 -H2). CHAPTER 4 Water for brewing W ater is the lifeblood of many industrial processes and brewing is no exception. , (2) as process water used for cleaning and sanitizing the plant and packing beer transfer lines and so on, and (3) as service water for raising steam for transport of heat energy around the brewery. Each use requires somewhat different water quality. Altogether, depending on their efficiency, brewers use between four and perhaps even twelve volumes of water for each volume of beer produced; process water and service water represent the primary demand for water in a brewery for which quite soft water (see below) is preferred.
Or electrical neutrality of charged molecules is much more consequential for proteins. p. p. p. This relation between the pH of the surrounding solution and the properties of the protein molecule is centrally important in understanding protein behavior, among the most important being the effect of pH on enzyme action and protein denaturation. Proteins accept or donate protons (and therefore incidentally also act as buffers) depending on the pH of the solution, but these reactions do not concern the amino group and the acid group attached to the a-carbon of each individual amino acid.
Their particular alchemy is that they accelerate chemical reactions under mild conditions of concentration, temperature, pH, and pressure and with exquisite precision. For every chemical reaction of life, there is an enzyme or group of enzymes available. Enzymes are catalysts (a material that participates in a chemical reaction without itself being changed) which, in the presence of suitable substrates and due to the power of specific activation, accelerate thermodynamically possible reactions.