By Richard O. Reinhart
This readable, up-to-date textbook via a flight general practitioner comprehensively covers the criteria that have an effect on ``medical airworthiness.'' comprises sensible chapters on facing in-flight scientific emergencies and on holding flight health with nutrition and workout.
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From these lobes, signals or “messages” are transmitted via nerves to muscles, telling them what to do. Next are the parietal lobes where some of the senses send information for processing. The temporal lobes are where the speech center is located and where the brain computes information and data and assists in written and spoken communications. The occipital lobes are where information from the eyes is processed. The second part of the brain is the midbrain. It contains the hypothalamus, which produces hormones that affect temperature, growth, and other physiological activities.
The heart The heart is the pump in this human hydraulic system, which is a closed system with blood flowing from the heart, into arteries, then through capillaries that are spread around the tissues and individual cells (Fig. 2-1). From there, the blood continues into the venous system, through the lungs, and back to the heart. 22 Basic human anatomy Figure 2-1 The heart is the pump of the circulatory system. This pump is divided into four chambers that essentially take blood from a major vein and pump it into arteries.
This diffusion and gas exchange at the cell level will be further explained in the section on physiology of respiration. Air is pulled into the lungs by decreasing the pressure within the chest cavity (Fig. 2-3). This is accomplished by the diaphragm, a muscular, dome-shaped covering of the lower part of the rib cage, forming a closed container with one opening, the bronchus. When this muscle contracts, it flattens out, creating lower pressure and bringing in air to fill the alveoli. This inhalation is an active event (a muscle contracting), whereas exhaling is passive when the muscular diaphragm relaxes and returns to its dome shape.