Assessment of Learning by Professor Wynne Harlen

By Professor Wynne Harlen

This publication takes a severe examine how scholars' achievements are assessed for a variety of reasons, from reporting growth to choice and qualification. It considers the connection among what's taught, and the way, and what and the way studying results are assessed. The effect of utilizing evaluation effects for atmosphere objectives and review of provision for studying is usually mentioned. the professionals and cons of utilizing checks and examinations and possible choices in line with the judgments of lecturers are thought of by way of 4 key standards: validity, reliability, effect and required assets. facts from examine and examples of present perform in numerous nations inside and outdoors the united kingdom aid the case for making extra and higher use of academics' judgments in review of studying. during this approach evaluate of studying (summative review) might be appropriate with overview for studying (formative assessment).

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However, tests are only as reliable as the scoring or marking and steps taken to make reliability as high as possible favour items that are closed, so that marking depends as little as possible on human judgment. Clearly, items that require students to be creative or to present arguments or show understanding of a complex situation do not fit this description. Consequently they are rarely considered and would be unlikely to survive the pilot trials used in developing and selecting items for external tests and examinations.

However, high reliability is necessary when the results are used by others and when students are being compared or selected. Impact Here impact means the consequences of the assessment, often referred to as ‘consequential validity’ (Messick, 1989). It concerns the inferences drawn from the assessment information in relation to the uses that are made of it. As noted earlier, assessment generally has an impact on the curriculum and on pedagogy, which is greater the higher the stakes attached to the outcomes of assessment, so it is important that any potential adverse effects are minimized.

High values of reliability are reported for these scales. Validity, however, will depend upon the extent to which they predict how students behave when, as adults, they are faced with situations where they have to apply their learning of how to learn. In the next chapter we will continue to focus on what ought to be assessed by considering what those who receive and use assessment say about what they want to know about students. qxd 28/03/2007 18:06 3 Page 39 Views of ‘users’ of assessment This chapter looks at how assessment and different assessment procedures are viewed by the users of assessment information – parents, students, teachers, higher education and employers.

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