Acute Neuronal Injury: The Role of Excitotoxic Programmed

Denson G. Fujikawa 2+ within the early Eighties it was once famous that over the top Ca inflow, most likely via 2+ 2+ voltage-gated Ca channels, with a resultant elevate in intracellular Ca, used to be linked to neuronal loss of life from cerebral ischemia, hypoglycemia, and standing epilepticus (Siejo 1981). Calcium activation of phospholipases, with arachidonic acid accumulation and its oxidation, producing loose radicals, was once regarded as a possible mechanism wherein neuronal harm happens. In cerebral ischemia and a pair of+ hypoglycemia, strength failure was once regarded as the cause of over the top Ca inflow, while in prestige epilepticus it used to be inspiration that repetitive depolarizations have been accountable (Siejo 1981). in the meantime, John Olney chanced on that monosodium glutamate, the nutrients additive, whilst given to immature rats, was once linked to neuronal degeneration within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, which lacks a blood-brain barrier (Olney 1969). He up this remark with a chain of observations within the Nineteen Seventies that management of kainic acid, which we now comprehend prompts the GluR5-7 subtypes of glutamate receptor, and different glutamate analogues, prompted not just post-synaptic cytoplasmic swelling, but additionally dark-cell degeneration of neurons, whilst seen via electron microscopy (Olney 1971; Olney et al. 1974).

Show description

Read Online or Download Acute Neuronal Injury: The Role of Excitotoxic Programmed Cell Death Mechanisms PDF

Best neurology books


Have you visible anything that wasn't quite there? Heard a person name your identify in an empty condominium? Sensed somebody following you and rotated to discover nothing?

Hallucinations don’t belong entirely to the insane. even more more often than not, they're associated with sensory deprivation, intoxication, disease, or harm. individuals with migraines might even see shimmering arcs of sunshine or tiny, Lilliputian figures of animals and folks. individuals with failing eyesight, satirically, may well turn into immersed in a hallucinatory visible global. Hallucinations could be caused by an easy fever or maybe the act of waking or falling asleep, while humans have visions starting from luminous blobs of colour to superbly exact faces or terrifying ogres. those who find themselves bereaved may possibly obtain comforting “visits” from the departed. In a few stipulations, hallucinations can result in non secular epiphanies or perhaps the sensation of leaving one’s personal physique.

Humans have regularly sought such life-changing visions, and for hundreds of thousands of years have used hallucinogenic compounds to accomplish them. As a tender medical professional in California within the Nineteen Sixties, Oliver Sacks had either a private and a pro curiosity in psychedelics. those, together with his early migraine reports, introduced a lifelong research into the kinds of hallucinatory adventure.

Here, along with his traditional attractiveness, interest, and compassion, Dr. Sacks weaves jointly tales of his sufferers and of his personal mind-altering stories to light up what hallucinations let us know in regards to the association and constitution of our brains, how they've got inspired each culture’s folklore and paintings, and why the possibility of hallucination is found in us all, an integral part of the human situation.

Paediatric Neurology in Clinical General Practice: Common Neurological Problems in General Pediatrics

The final pediatrician faces an array of medical conditions in medical perform. This quantity is meant to relieve questions about one zone the overall pediatrician faces: universal neurological difficulties. Emphasizing the problems that this sort of practitioner might face in daily perform, instead of infrequent or strange stipulations, this publication describes tips to continue with the medical exam, prognosis and administration of neurological difficulties in youngsters.

Extra info for Acute Neuronal Injury: The Role of Excitotoxic Programmed Cell Death Mechanisms

Sample text

Journal of Neurosurgery 77: 29–36. Stanton M (1987) Patient education: Implications for nursing. Today’s OR Nurse 9(6): 16–20. Terry D, Nisbet K (1991) External ventricular drainage. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing (23 December) (6): 347–55. May crc 11/16/03 10:27 AM Page 44 Chapter 3 Spinal abnormalities in children Spina bifida Spina bifida was recognized 2,000 years ago by Prior Tay; most children born with spina bifida at that time died of infection or hydrocephalus. Today, with antibiotic use and the treatment of hydrocephalus, most children born with spina bifida have a long lifespan.

Raised intracranial pressure may result directly from a space-occupying lesion such as a tumour or a haematoma, from cerebral oedema, or due to the presence of hydrocephalus. Typical signs include headache (classically, early morning headache), vomiting and papilloedema (papilloedema will not occur in the baby as his head circumference will expand to compensate). Visual deterioration can be a sign of chronic raised intracranial pressure. Changes in vital signs are a late indicator of acute raised intracranial pressure in children, and irritability, drowsiness and pupil dilatation with a decreased reaction to light, are earlier indicators of neurological deterioration.

Cambridge MA: Blackwell. El Shafer IL, El Rough MA (1987) Ventriculojugular shunt against the direction of blood flow. Role of the internal jugular vein as an antisiphonage device. Child’s Nervous System 3: 282–4. Epstein F, Lapras C, Wisoff JH (1988) Slit ventricle syndrome: etiology and treatment. Pediatric Neuroscience 14: 5–10. Fishman RA (1984) The pathophysiology of pseudotumor cerebri. Archives of Neurology 41: 257–8. Guin S (1995) CNS practice in neurosurgery. Clinical Nurse Specialist (9 January) (1) 3–7.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.09 of 5 – based on 9 votes