By K. Hamblin
This e-book explores the adoption of 'active aging' guidelines via EU15 international locations and the impression on older peoples' paintings and retirement coverage recommendations. regulations tested contain unemployment advantages, energetic labour industry rules, partial pension receipt, pension rules, early retirement and incentives for deferral.
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Additional info for Active Ageing in the European Union: Policy Convergence and Divergence
Policies beneﬁt extensions/supplements and job search exemptions. The expansion of active labour market policies for older individuals. – Barriers to longer working removed – age discrimination legislation (Council of the European Union, 2000; European Commission, 2006). – Part-time work/reduction of working hours (European Commission, 2006). – Training (Committee of the Regions, 2003). – Incentives to remain in employment (European Commission, 2006). for an extended period. There are also de jure early withdrawal schemes in the form of early retirement pensions.
In addition, in weighing up employment versus early exit in ﬁnancial terms, an assumption would have to be made about the income from employment, which would limit the model biographies analysis to polarised occupations or would result in an extremely large data matrix. Exit from the labour market does not represent a homogenous experience and this is because the older age cohort itself is made up of diverse groups who will experience ageing, employment and retirement differently. In turn, state policies will mediate their experience and will not interact with all sub-groups equally.
8 The ﬁrst type, in the ‘primary service sector’, is scarcer, offers a relatively long career with security and high incomes. In the ‘secondary service sector’, the jobs are lowskilled, provide minimal beneﬁts to employees and present limited security. These jobs have a high risk of alienation and job dissatisfaction. These secondary service sector jobs are often mistaken for white-collar employment but in actuality their wages are more similar to the manual work they replaced. 1 demonstrates using the ILO’s International Standards of Occupations, the wages of secondary service sector jobs such as service, shop and market sales employees are lower than manual labour including employment such as craft and related trades work; plant and machine operation and assembly; and elementary occupations.